India holds a respectable position globally in X-ray research, particularly in X-ray crystallography. X-ray research in India is as old as the discovery of X-rays and the history of X-ray research in colonial India is fascinating. The purpose of this paper is to present how India participated in X-ray research and how X-ray research initiated by C.V. Raman, the only Indian Nobel Laureate in physics, at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) paved the way to proliferate X-ray research in all parts of India and acted as the foundation stone of modern X-ray research in India. With limited resources under the British rule (India became independent in 1947), readers will find that the research work performed by Indians is commendable. This article is neither comprehensive nor detailed but will give the readers a flavour of the high-quality X-ray research that was performed in India in the early years after the discovery of X-rays.